This list contains a collection of work that broadly addresses the core themes of communication, inclusion, and inequality. You can also access a list of our working papers here. For full publication details, see home pages of group members


Featured Publications

Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. (eds) 2014. Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lehdonvirta, V. and Castronova, E. 2014. Virtual Economies: Design and Analysis, MIT Press

Hammett, D., Twyman, K. C., and Graham, M. 2014. Research and Fieldwork in Development. London: Routledge.



Ojanperä, S., Graham, M., Straumann, R. K., De Sabbata, S., & Zook, M. 2017. Engagement in the knowledge economy: Regional patterns of content creation with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. Information Technologies & International Development, 13, 33–51.

Friederici, N., Ojanperä, S., and Graham, M. 2017. The Impact of Connectivity in Africa: Grand Visions and the Mirage of Inclusive Digital Development. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 79, 2, 1-20.

Ballatore, A., Graham, M., and Sen, S. 2017. Digital Hegemonies: The Localness of Search Engine ResultsAnnals of the American Association of Geographers.   DOI:10.1080/24694452.2017.1308240.

Graham, M., Hjorth, I., Lehdonvirta, V. 2017. Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research

Foster, C. and Graham, M. 2017. Reconsidering the Role of the Digital in Global Production Networks. Global Networks. 17(1) 68-88 DOI: 10.1111/glob.12142.

Wood, A., Graham, M., Anwar, M. A., Ramizo, G. 2017. Minimum wages on online labour platforms. Oxford Internet Institute.



Ford, H. and Graham, M. 2016. Provenance, Power, and Place: Linked Data and Opaque Digital geographies. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. doi:10.1177/0263775816668857 (pre-publication version here).

Foster, C. and Graham, M. 2016. Reconsidering the Role of the Digital in Global Production Networks. Global Networks. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12142.

Smart, C., Donner, J., and Graham, M. 2016. Connecting the World from the Sky: Spatial Discourses Around Internet Access in the Developing World. Eighth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development.

Straumann, R. K., Graham, M. 2016. Who isn’t online? Mapping the ‘Archipelago of Disconnection.’Regional Studies, Regional Science. 3(1) 96-98.

Mann, L and Graham, M. 2016 The Domestic Turn: Business Process Outsourcing and the Growing Automation of Kenyan Organisations. Journal of Development Studies 52:4, 530-548, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2015.1126251. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M., and Foster, C. 2016. Geographies of Information Inequality in Sub-Saharan AfricaThe African Technopolitan. 5 78-85.

Graham, M., Mann, L., Friederici, N. and Waema, T. 2016. Growing the Kenyan Business Process Outsourcing SectorThe African Technopolitan. 5 93-95

Ford, H., and Graham, M. 2016. Semantic Cities: Coded Geopolitics and the Rise of the Semantic Web. In Code and the City. eds. Kitchin, R., and Perng, S-Y. London: Routledge. 200-214.

Poorthuis, A., Zook, M., Shelton, T., Graham, M, and Stephens, M. 2016. Using Geotagged Digital Social Data in Geographic Research. In Key Methods in Geography. eds. Clifford, N., French, S., Cope, M., and Gillespie, T. London: Sage. 248-269.

Graham, M., Straumann, R., Hogan, B. 2016. Digital Divisions of Labor and Informational Magnetism: Mapping Participation in Wikipedia. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 105(6) 1158-1178. doi:10.1080/00045608.2015.1072791.(pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. and Wood, A. 2016. Why the digital gig economy needs co-ops and unionsopenDemocracy. Sept 15, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Digital work marketplaces impose a new balance of powerNew Internationalist.May 25, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Organising the Digital “Wild West”: Can Strategic Bottlenecks Help Prevent a Race to the Bottom for Online Workers? Union Solidarity International. May 11, 2016 (also translated into Turkish)

Graham, M. 2016. Digital Work and the Global Precariat. Union Solidarity International. Mar 30, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Facebook is no Charity, and the ‘Free’ in Free Basics Comes at a Price. The Conversation Jan 11, 2016



Allagui, I., Graham, M., and Hogan, B. 2015. Wikipedia Arabe et la Construction Collective du SavoirIn Wikipedia, objet scientifique non identifie. eds. Barbe, L., Merzeau, L., and Schafer, V. Paris: Presses Universitaries du Paris Ouest. 177-194.

Gagliardone, I. 2015. “Can you hear me?” Mobile-Radio Interactions and Governance in Africa. New Media & Society.

Graham, M. 2015. Information Geographies and Geographies of Information New Geographies 7 159-166.

Graham, M., De Sabbata, S., Zook, M. 2015. Towards a study of information geographies:(im)mutable augmentations and a mapping of the geographies of information Geo: Geography and Environment.2(1) 88-105. doi:10.1002/geo2.8

Graham, M. 2015. Contradictory Connectivity: Spatial Imaginaries and Techno-Mediated Positionalities in Kenya’s Outsourcing Sector. Environment and Planning A. (in press).

Graham, M., Andersen, C., and Mann, L. 2015. Geographies of Connectivity in East Africa: Trains, Telecommunications, and Technological Teleologies. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (forthcoming).

Graham, M and De Sabbata, S. 2015 Mapping Information Wealth and Poverty: The Geography of Gazetteers. Environment and Planning A (in press).

Mann, L and Graham, M. 2015 The Domestic Turn: Business Process Outsourcing and the Growing Automation of Kenyan Organisations. Journal of Development Studies (in press).

Sen, S. W., Ford, H., Musicant, D. R., Graham, M., Keyes, O. S. B., Hecht, B. 2015 Barriers to the Localness of Volunteered Geographic Information. CHI 2015 (pre-publication version here).


Foster, C. G. and Graham, M. 2015. Connectivity and the Tea Sector in Rwanda. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Foster, C. G. and Graham, M. 2015. The Internet and Tourism in Rwanda. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Mann, L., Graham, M. and Friederici, N. 2015. The Internet and Business Process Outsourcing in East Africa. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.



Blank, G. and Groselj, D. 2014. The dimensions of Internet use: Amount, variety and types. Information, Communication & Society. 17:417-435.

Foster, C. 2014. Does Quality Matter for Innovations in Low Income Markets? The Case of the Kenyan Mobile Phone Sector. Technology in Society, 38, 119–129.

Foster, C.G. and Heeks, R.B. 2014. Nurturing user–producer interaction: inclusive innovation flows in a low-income mobile phone market. Innovation and Development, 4, 2, 221-237

Gagliardone, I. 2014. Media Development with Chinese Characteristics. Global Media Journal, 4,2, 2015.

Gagliardone, I. 2014. “A Country in Order”: Technopolitics, Nation Building and the Development of ICTs in Ethiopia. Information Technologies & International Development, vol. 9, n. 4, 2014

Graham, M. and Foster, C. 2014. ‘Geographies of Information Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa’, paper presented at Round Table on Inclusion in the Network Society, Bangalore, India, October 2014,

Graham, M., Hogan, B., Straumann, R. K., and Medhat, A. 2014. Uneven Geographies of User-Generated Information: Patterns of Increasing Informational Poverty. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101(4). 746-764.

Graham, M. 2014. The Knowledge Based Economy and Digital Divisions of Labour. In Companion to Development Studies, 3rd edition, eds V. Desai, and R. Potter. Hodder. 189-195.

Graham, M. 2014. Internet Geographies: Data Shadows and Digital Divisions of Labour. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 99-116.

Graham, M. 2014. A Critical Perspective on the Potential of the Internet at the Margins of the Global Economy. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 301-318.

Graham, M. 2014. Inequitable Distributions in Internet Geographies: The Global South is Gaining Access But Lags in Local Content. innovations 9(3-4) 17-34.

Heeks, R.B., Foster C.G. and Nugroho, Y., 2014. New models of inclusive innovation for development. (Introduction to Special Issue on New Models of Inclusive Innovation for Development). Innovation and Development, 4, 2, 175-185

Lehdonvirta, V., Ratan, R. A., Kennedy, T. L., and Williams, D. 2014. Pink and Blue Pixel$: Gender and Economic Disparity in Two Massive Online Games. The Information Society 30(4).

Lehdonvirta, V., Barnard, H., Graham, M, Hjorth, I. 2014. Online labour markets – leveling the playing field for international service markets?, paper presented at the IPP2014: Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy, Oxford, September 25-26 September 2014.


Friederici, N. 2014. The Business Models of mLabs and mHubs: An Evaluation of infoDev’s Mobile Innovation Support Pilots. Washington, DC: infoDev, World Bank.

Gagliardone, I. 2014. Mapping and Analysing Hate Speech Online: Opportunities and Challenges for Ethiopia. Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy (PCMLP) Report, Oxford, UK.

Graham, M. and B. Hogan. 2014. Uneven Openness: Barriers to MENA Representation on Wikipedia. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Graham, M. 2014. Kenya BPO and ITES Policy Brief. OII White Paper March 2014

InfoDev, and CAD. 2014. (Contributor: Nicolas Friederici) Do mLabs Make a Difference? A Holistic Outcome Assessment of infoDev’s Mobile Entrepreneurship Enablers. Washington, DC: infoDev, The World Bank.

Waema, T. and Katua, C. (2014) The Promises of Fibre-Optic Broadband in Tourism and Tea Sectors: A Pipeline for Economic Development in East Africa. Project Report.



Blank, G. 2013. Who produces content? Stratification and content production on the Internet. Information, Communication & Society. 16: 590-612. DOI:10.1080/1369118X.2013.777758

Dutton, W. and Blank, G. 2013. The emergence of Next Generation Internet users. International Economics and Economic Policy. 10. DOI 10.1007/s10368-013-0245-8

Foster, C.G.  and Heeks, R.B., 2013. Innovation and scaling of ICT for the bottom-of-the-pyramid. Journal of  Information Technology, 28, 296–315.

Foster, C.G. and Heeks, R.B., 2013. Analyzing policy for inclusive innovation: the mobile sector and base-of-the-pyramid markets in Kenya. Innovation and Development, 3, 103–119.

Foster, C.G. and Heeks, R.B., 2013. Conceptualising Inclusive Innovation: Modifying Systems of Innovation Frameworks to Understand Diffusion of New Technology to Low-Income Consumers. European Journal of Development Research, 25, 333–355.

Graham, M. and L. Mann. 2013. Imagining a Silicon Savannah? Technological and Conceptual Connectivity in Kenya’s BPO and Software Development Sectors. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 56(2). 1-19.

Graham, M. 2013. Thai Silk dot Com: Authenticity, Altruism, Modernity and Markets in the Thai Silk Industry. Globalisations 10(2) 211-230.

Graham, M and M. Zook. 2013. Augmented Realities and Uneven Geographies: Exploring the Geo-linguistic Contours of the Web. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 77-99.

Lehdonvirta, V., & Mezier, P. 2013. Identity and Self-Organization in Unstructured Work. IS1202 Dynamics of Virtual Work Working Paper Series No. 1. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire.


Friederici, N. 2013. Towards Transformation? ICT in Post-Conflict Rwanda. Washington, DC.